History of State Militias




 
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October 6th, 2004  
Cadet_Shelton
 

Topic: History of State Militias


How did the State Guards and National Guard come about?
October 6th, 2004  
Airborne Eagle
 
 
Can't speak for all, but I belonged to a unit in the PA Army Guard with the nickname "The Associators." (link to unit history) Now, they're the 111th Infantry.

The 1-111th Infantry Battalion (Mechanized) is a subordinate command of the 56th Brigade (M), 28th Infantry Division (M). The major subordinate units are four mechanized infantry companies, an anti-armor company and a headquarters & headquarters company. The battalion’s subordinate units are located throughout the Delaware Valley, ranging from West Chester to Phoenixville to Plymouth Meeting to Center City Philadelphia.

The 1-111th Infantry Battalion (M) has dual federal and state missions. The federal mission is to deploy on short notice as part of the 28th Infantry Division (M) and destroy, capture or repel enemy forces using maneuver and shock effect. The battalion can also conduct various activities known as Operations Other Than War, independently or as part of a joint or multinational force in peacetime and conflict environments. The state mission of the battalion is to serve the Governor and the citizens of the Commonwealth as needed in times of natural disaster or civil unrest.

The 111th Infantry is one of Pennsylvania’s oldest and most decorated units. It located in the Philadelphia area. This storied unit can trace its lineage back to the first units formed in Pennsylvania in 1747.

In the 18th century, the English colonies in America were under constant threat of invasion, either from the French, the Indians or the Spanish. The king of England organized units throughout the colonies to defend the inhabitants from various attacks. For the first 75 years of its existence, however, Pennsylvania was controlled by Quakers, who abhorred violence and resisted forming units.

In 1747, Philadelphia was under a serious threat of French privateers coming up the Delaware River. Benjamin Franklin, already a preeminent Philadelphia politician, recognized the need to create a defense force. Cognizant of the Quaker beliefs, he proposed an association of volunteer militia to defend Philadelphia. Thus on December 7, 1747, the Associators were formed as Pennsylvania’s first citizen militia.

Fortunately, the immediate threat to Philadelphia passed, but Associators continued to exist until the Revolutionary War. The Associators were at the core of the militia formed for this war. In 1777, when the militia law was enacted, the units were reorganized as the Philadelphia Brigade of Militia. They consisted of five battalions, earning honors in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine and Germantown.

An interesting sidelight of the Associators was their contribution to the formation of another important military formation, the U.S. Marine Corps. When the senior captain of the newly authorized Continental Marines began recruiting members for the corps, he was accompanied by drummers, presumably borrowed from the Philadelphia Associators, as they scoured the city for recruits in December 1775.

After the Revolutionary War, Associators were no longer necessary because a militia had been organized and continued to exist in regimental strength. Elements of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division were mobilized for the War of 1812, earning a battle streamer without inscription.

In 1861, elements of the 1st Infantry Regiment were mustered into service in the 18th Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment, and later the 72nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment. These units earned battle honors at Manassas, Peninsula, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellors-ville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsyl-vania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and Virginia 1863.

From the end of the Civil War until World War I, the unit was reorganized several times, merging with the State Fencibles (organized 1813) and Weccacoe Legion (organized from the Weccacoe Volunteer Fire Company and Baxter’s Fire Zouaves) to become the 3rd Infantry Regiment.

During World War I, the 3rd Infantry Regiment consolidated with the 10th Infantry Regiment to form the 110th Infantry, earning honors at Champagne-Marne, Aisne-Marne, Oise-Aisne, Meuse-Argonne, Lorraine 1918 and Champagne 1918.

After World War I, the unit was consolidated with the 6th Infantry and redesignated the 111th Infantry. The 111th was mobilized for World War II and served in the Pacific Theater. The unit earned honors in the Central Pacific, the Eastern Mandates and the Western Pacific.


Sadly, they deactivated the 111th and transformed it into a Stinger missile battalion circa 1994-95. I was cross trained to be a crewman, even though I was an intel analyst.

We had a special tab that closely resembled the Ranger Regiment scroll patch. It went above the 28th ID patch (It was red and black, too).
October 18th, 2004  
SFC
 
The citizen-soldiers who make up the National Guard have fought in every major American war since 1637. War has changed a great deal since 1637, and today's Guard must be prepared to fight in a high-technology environment, using complex weapons and equipment. The men and women of today's Guard are ready to become full-time professional soldiers if the need arises, whether for federal or state missions just as they did in 1637.

http://www.arng.army.mil/history/Gua...ory.asp?type=1
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October 18th, 2004  
Cadet_Shelton
 
I mean specifically, when did the split occur between the "National Guard" and "State Guards"?

Or was one created seperatly?
October 19th, 2004  
SFC
 
I believe you will find that the National Guard is under the supervision of the state governors and the Army Reserves are under the Department of the Army.

SFC
October 19th, 2004  
Cadet_Shelton
 
I mean the State Guard, the State Milita, like the South Carolina State Guard...
October 20th, 2004  
SFC
 
At the direction of the Adjutant General, develop and maintain organized resourced elements of the South Carolina Military Department to support administratively, logistically, and environmentally, all military operations as required. At the direction of the Governor, through SC EPD, SAD, and the SC State Guard, deliver a fully capable level of preparedness and response to protect the lives and property of the people of South Carolina during times of emergency.

http://www.scsg.org/
October 20th, 2004  
Cadet_Shelton
 
nobody understands me!
October 20th, 2004  
Mark Conley
 
 
I think i see what you are talking about cadet...lets see if the rest of the group can puzzle this one out

http://www.scguard.com/

Along with the South Carolina National Guard soldiers are the unpaid volunteers of the South Carolina State Guard. The State Guard consists of men and women ready to step in and assist the National Guard and Emergency Preparedness Division.

The South Carolina State Guard will be the force which assumes the state duties of the South Carolina National Guard if these units are called to federal duty outside of South Carolina. If required, the South Carolina State Guard will occupy and secure armories and other essential areas designated by the Governor; assist local and state law enforcement agencies in the preservation of law and order; perform security missions at vital installations and protect life and property in case of natural disaster.

seems like there can be another rabbit hole to go down after all...lol

and yes cadet a state legislature can comply with federal state and local desires..when asked to do so. thank you for reminding us about the fact that most things arent apparent to those that look at it from their own state point of view...
October 20th, 2004  
Duty Honor Country
 
 
here is the info you seek

"The Federal Army Reserve begins in 1908 with a way to get more physicians in uniform. In 1916 the National Defense Act created more of a comprehensive federal reserve force, with the NG as the primary manpower source. Federal status for NG was required for foreign war service because of a 1912 opinion of the Attorney General. The ruling was that there is no constitutional authority for use of militia in foreign (overseas) operations. The reason is that the Constitution empowers Congress "To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions.”" This defensive character of militia had been assumed during the whole course of history following the Constitution. Militiamen re enlisted as Federal soldiers to serve in the Mexican War (1846) and likewise in the Spanish American War (1898). The wars of the 20th Century would not be staged in the Continental United States. To take part in the combat the NG had to convert from militia to foreign war making, i.e. become part of the U.S. Army. This was eventually done by creating a dual status for NG members. They became part of the Army of the United States (AUS). "
http://www.sgaus.org/armyres.htm

Before 1912, the national guard "militia were formed by the state and could only be used inside the US. There were instances in the war of 1812 where regular army units crossed into Canada. The militia did not follow since they did not "sign up" for foreign service. One unit of the American Regulars was smashed by the British just inside Canada as the militia stood idle on the American side of the river.

pretty messed up eh!!!