This day in military history.. - Page 294

April 12th, 2021  
April 12
238 Battle of Carthage
1204 Crusaders capture Constantinople
1807 Froberg Mutiny ends
1861 Bombardment of Ft. Sumter begins,US Civil War begins
1862 The Great Locomotive Chase
1863 Battle of Bayou Teche begins
1864 Ft. Pillow Massacre
1865 Confederate Army of Mobile evacuates Mobile, US troops captures Montgomery, Al.
1917 Battle of Vimy Ridge ends
1935 1st flight Bristol Blenheim
1940 French Sub Chaser C107 sunk in a collision in the Loire. KM Tanker Moonsund stopped by sub HMS Snapper and sunk after crew abandoned ship. KM Sub Chaser UJ-117 sunk by mine in Danish Straits. Captured Norwegian Patrol Ships Senja and Michael Sars bombed/sunk by British at Narvik, raised, repaired and returned to KM service. Norwegian Guard Ship Sperm scuttled at Vikedal
1941 Trawler HMS Rypa sank in a storm in Loch Ewe. Yugoslav River Monitors Drava, Morava, Sava, and Vardar scuttled or bombed/sunk. Morava and Sava raised, repaired and put in Croatian service.
1942 PT-35 scuttled while under repair at Cebu to prevent capture. US Aux. minesweeper YAG-4 shelled/sunk off Corrigidor.
1944 PT-135 scuttled after running aground off Crater Point, New Britain. USN Rescue Tug ATR-98 sunk in collision with Tug USS Abnaki west of the Azores. IJN sub I-174 bombed/sunk by USN PB4Y off Truk. Aux. Minesweeper Wa-104 sunk by HMS Stygia south west of Bali.
1945 U-486 sunk by sub HMS Tapir north-west of Bergen. U-1024 captured by R.N. ships off the Isle of Man, sinks next day. USN LST 493 wrecked/sunk off Plymouth, U.K. LCT-66 lost at Pearl Harbor, unknown causes. LCS(L)-33 and Destroyer USS Manert L Abele sunk by Kamakzes off Okinawa. IJN sub RO-64 sunk by mine in Hiroshima Bay.
1970 Soviet sub K-8 sinks after a fire on the 8th.
June 4th, 2021  
June 4
1745 Battle of Hohenfriedeberg
1794 British capture Port-au-Prince, Haiti
1859 Battle of Magenta
1862 Confederates evacuate Ft. Pillow, opens way to Memphis.
1916 Russian Brusilov Offensive begins
1940 Battle of Dunkirk/Dunkirk Evacuation ends. French Aux. Minesweeper Emil Deschamps sunk by mine northeast of Foreness Point
1941 Minelayer HMS Van Meerlant sunk by mine off the Isle of Sleppey
1942 Battle of Midway: Battle begins, Carriers Akagi, Kaga and Soryu bombed/scuttled. Antisubmarine ship HMS Cocker sunk by E Boat S-57 off Tobruk.
1943 U-308 sunk by Sub HMS Truculent northeast of the Faroes. U-594 sunk by RAF Hudson west of Gibraltar. USN Sub Chaser PC-496 sunk by mine off Bizerte
1944 Allies capture Rome. U-505 captured by Boarding Party from Destroyer USS Pillsbury. R.N. LCT 2498 foundered in the English Channel. KM Minesweeper M-37 sunk by Soviet MTBs off Estonia
1945 Aux. Sub Chaser CHa-112 sunk by B-24s in the Java Sea.
June 6th, 2021  
June 6
1513 Battle of Navara
1762 Siege of Havana begins
1813 Battle of Stoney Creek, Ontario
1862 naval Battle of Memphis
1882 Battle of Embobo
1940 Armed Merchant Cruiser HMS Carinthia sunk by U-46 off Ireland
1942 Destroyer USS Hammann sunk by I-168. Cruiser Mikuma bombed/sunk
1943 Armed Yacht HMS Sargasso sunk in a collision off the Isle of Wight
1944 Destroyer Minazuki sunk by sub USS Harder of Tawi Tawi. Frigate CD-15 sunk by sub USS Raton in South China Sea.
Battle of Normandy begins: D-Day: Norwegian Destroyer Svenner sunk in the English Channel by KM Torpedo Boat. Destroyer USS Corry sunk by coast artillery off Utah Beach. Sub Chaser USS PC-1261 sunk by coast artillery. R.N. MTB 248 sunk in a collision in the English Channel. USN LCIs 232, 416, 497, 553, 85, 91, 92, 93, and R.N. LCI 185, USN LCTs 197, 22, 229, 25, 27, 294, 30, 332, 362, 364, 52, 397, 305, and R.N. LCTs 2191 and 2283 sunk off Normandy. Target Ship HMS Centurion sunk as a breakwater off Normandy.
1945 Gasoline Tanker USS Sheepscot wrecked at Iwo Jima.
1971 Battle of Long Khanh begins
1982 Israel invades Lebanon
September 5th, 2021  
5 Sept.
1590 Siege of Paris ends.
1697 naval Battle of Hudson's Bay
1781 naval Battle of the Chesapeake
1812 Siege of Ft. Wayne begins
1914 1st Battle of the Marne begins
1940 KM Flackships sunk by mines: V-201 off Westerschelde, Netherlands, V-402 off Dunkirk, V-403 off Vlissingen
1942 Destroyer-Transports USS Little and Gregory sunk by 3 IJN Destroyers off Guadalcanal. E Boat S-27 torpedoed and sunk by S-72 in the Black Sea
1943 R.N. Motor Launch ML 108 sunk by mine in the English Channel. USN Trawler YP-279 sinks in a storm off Townsville, Australia. IJN Salvage Ship Yusho Maru sunk by mine in Makassar Strait. KM Minesweeper R-12 sunk by mine off Pirana
1944 KM Minesweeper M-274 scuttled off Belgium and M-276 scuttled in the Scheldt Estuary. U-362 sunk by Soviet Minesweeper T-116 in the Kara Sea. E Boat S-184 sunk by shore batteries.
1945 Liberation of Changi
On the 5th of September 1945, Changi Prisoner of War Camp was liberated by troops of the 5th Indian Division. The Changi prison in Singapore is today remembered as being synonymous with the suffering of Australian PoWs under the Japanese during WWII.
For much of its existence Changi was not one camp but rather a collection of up to seven prisoner-of-war (POW) and internee camps, occupying an area of approximately 25 square kilometres. Its name came from the peninsula on which it stood, at the east end of Singapore Island. Prior to the war the Changi Peninsula had been the British Army's principal base area in Singapore. As a result the site boasted an extensive and well-constructed military infrastructure, including three major barracks – Selarang, Roberts and Kitchener – as well as many other smaller camps. Singapore's civilian prison, Changi Gaol, was also on the peninsula.
Most of the Australians captured in Singapore following the Fall of Singapore were moved into Changi on 17 February 1942. They occupied Selarang Barracks, which remained the AIF Camp at Changi until June 1944. In August all officers above the rank of colonel were moved to Formosa (present-day Taiwan), leaving the Australians in Changi under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Frederick "Black Jack" Galleghan. Security was further tightened following the arrival of dedicated Japanese POW staff at the end of August 1942. The new Japanese commandant requested that all prisoners sign a statement declaring that they would not attempt escape. The prisoners refused en masse and, on 2 September, all 15,400 British and Australian prisoners were confined in the Selarang Barracks area.
After May 1942, large work parties began to be sent out of Changi to work on projects such as the Burma-Thailand railway. In February 1942 there were around 15,000 Australians in Changi; by mid-1943 less than 2,500 remained. In May 1944 all the Allied prisoners in Changi, now including 5,000 Australians, were concentrated in the immediate environs of Changi Gaol, which up until this time had been used to detain civilian internees.
In this area 11,700 prisoners were crammed into less than a quarter of a square kilometre: this period established Changi's place in popular memory. Rations were cut, camp life was increasingly restricted and in July the authority of Allied senior officers over their troops was revoked.
Changi was liberated by troops of the 5th Indian Division on 5 September 1945 and within a week troops were being repatriated. Despite its reputation, Changi was ironically one of the most benign of the Japanese prisoner-of-war camps; its privations were relatively minor compared to those of others, particularly those on the Burma–Thailand railway. About 850 POWs died during their internment in Changi during the Japanese occupation of Singapore, a relatively low rate compared to the overall death rate of 27% for POWs in Japanese camps or the 75% mortality rate experienced during the infamous ‘Death Marches’ .